Tuesday, 12 May 2009

Art Deco History

By Marta Etynkowski Art Deco in the 1920s The mood during the 1920s was optimistic and the future seemed bright. World War I was over and the economy was booming throughout the world. Jazz music was all the rage, women had won the right to vote and the flapper further liberated women. The Machine Age was in full swing and technology was rapidly improving the quality of life. This was the age that introduced the radio, the printing press, the skyscraper and modernized transportation. There was a sense of excitement and expectancy in the air, a time of anticipating a future filled with promise. Paris 1925 It was during this time that Art Deco movement began to emerge. An exhibition was held in Paris in 1925, called Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes. It attracted all of the prominent French artists, architects, craftsmen and designers of the period and

featured their works. Although the various works did not all have a common aesthetic - the Art Deco style is in fact quite eclectic, with influences of Art Nouveau, Cubism, Futurism, Modernism, Neo-Classicism and Bauhaus (Benton, 2003) - the themes of the works did have a commonality... Art Deco Themes The themes that emerged from the Exhibition were 'Modernity, 'Technology' and 'Luxury & Leisure'. Although the Exhibition in Paris featured the works of French artists, the Art Deco movement was a global one, with deep roots in other European countries, Egypt, India, East Asia, Latin America, South Africa, Australia, United States, Mexico and Cuba. The 'look' of Art Deco is often difficult to describe, as it is an eclectic mix of styles, however it has the "you know it when you see it" quality about it. (Fulford, 2003). The Classic Art Deco Look Art Deco is associated with a sleek aesthetic, symmetrical geometric shapes and bold bright colours like yellow, purple, ruby and turquoise. Skyscrapers, furniture, and everyday objects were embellished with angular patterns like zigzags, sunburst and chevrons. Automobiles, trains and other means of transport began to take on a more futuristic, aerodynamic look. Steel, glass and lacquered wood were used to achieve that sleek, modern look. The booming economy allowed for the liberal use of expensive materials, such as diamonds and emeralds in jewelry, and mahogany and ivory in furniture. As leisurely travel came into vogue, a need for marketing exotic destinations to the young and affluent became increasingly important. Major advances in Graphic Design were happening during this time and in turn there was a mass producing of advertising paraphernalia that came out of the Art Deco era, most notably the travel poster. Art Deco in the 1930s With the stock market crash of 1929, the Great Depression began to spread throughout the globe. Although it would be a couple more years before the average family began to experience the effect of this economic downturn, the optimism of the 20s was beginning to be replaced with a bleak somberness. By the mid 1930s however, the world had been badly bruised and beaten by the Depression and Art Deco was an obscene, glittering reminder of a future than never came. It came to be associated with an opulence and extravagance that had no place in the stark reality of the day. Moreover, as the threat of a second world war loomed closer and closer, Art Deco was looked upon ever more vehemently. And with the outbreak of WWII in 1939, Art Deco was dead.

Fellow Graphic Designers and Web Designers - "Forbes" Indicates the End of the World As We Know It

By Jeremy Tuber I stumbled on an article written in Forbes Magazine on February 16th, 2009 called, "The Creativity of Crowds," by Christopher Steiner. The article highlights two Chicagoans and their company called CrowdSpring. Their plan is to help entrepreneurs buy allowing them to hire design help at a fraction of the cost a talented freelancer would charge. Good news if you're a business owner. Bad news if you're a creative freelancer trying to get paid a fair price for your work. So what's the big deal? eLance and Guru have been around for years True, however a new idea, "hire an amateur designer," is slowly creeping into the business mainstream. Whereas years ago not too many business owners (besides the technically savvy ones) didn't have any clue about

sites like eLance, Guru or CrowdSpring, they either know now or they're going to know really soon. Change is coming...in fact, it's already here. Why is this happening to the graphic design industry? Pretty simple: the economy is pushing businesses to save money - hard. Business owners are looking to shave expenses any chance they can get, and the truth is, the first cuts they ALWAYS make are in areas that don't directly produce revenue...can you say design? Creative support and marketing are always the first to get cut when a company hits hard times. Are sites like eLance, and CrowdSpring are ruining the creative freelancing industry? Not really, and anyone saying they are really doesn't understand capitalism and how it works. They're essentially providing opportunities for anyone and everyone to compete against you. The influx of "wanna-be" designers who'll create just about anything for a bus pass and an Arby's coupon is driving down the price of design work and causing a bit of a panic on the freelancers' side. Freelancers are throwing their arms up in the air saying, "How in the heck can I compete with some college kid that's happy making $12/hr. when I am trying to run a business?!" These web sites are leveling the playing field between the accomplished designer and someone who just got Adobe's latest Creative Suite last week as a way to make a few extra bucks. And don't think that these wanna-be's need a degree from a fancy design school to find work in this economic climate where almost every businesses is looking for a deal. If their work is passable and they are priced at a fraction of the cost of a professional, there will definitely be some cost-conscious, risk-taking business owners that'll give them a chance. I looked at CrowdSpring.com's web site on a couple of weeks ago. They had 170 open projects available and 14,845 registered people looking for work. All other things considered equal that comes to a 1.1% chance that you'll get a project over the rest of the field. In Mr. Steiner's article he references a marketing consultant that offered just $250 for a logo, 5 days later she had 112 designers to choose from. That's devastating news considering you'll find similar odds on other online job posting sites for creative freelancers. So how can creative freelancers compete with cheaper design options? The good news is that there is a tremendous opportunity for creative freelancers that can adapt and compete on a new playing field; one where the out-of-work Mom/Dad, college kid or the recreational designer can't possibly compete with you on.That playing field is all about generating sales and revenue with good design. Trying to compete on lowest price, artist talent or great service is a sure ticket to the unemployment line - there are just too many other options spouting those platitudes, and there isn't enough demand to keep up. The truth is, if your creative talents can consistently bring your clients more revenue and more sales- and you actually make rather than cost your client money, you will always be able to find work. That's how you compete with these low-cost designers. Any person with Adobe Photoshop, access to online tutorials and a template can easily crank out a logo, business card, advertisement or even a web site. Heck, I've seen kids in junior high do it. The real question is, can their work bring in clients and create revenue? It's a brand new world out there and whether you or graphic design organizations like nospec.com like it or not, change is coming. I have a lot of respect for these organizations that try to uphold the integrity and status quo for design industry, but they are fighting a losing battle - a lot like the record industry trying to fight MP3s. The choice is to either adapt to fit the market or find yourself a new line of work. I don't like it either guys, but stopping this trend's is going to be like holding back the ocean with a broom. "Competition will always be nipping at your heals. If you stop running or rely on the status quo - you'll get swallowed." * Wish you had more referrals coming in? * Confused about how to price your work? * Feel like clients try to take advantage of you? * Wish you knew what to say to clients and how to say it so you sound more professional? Truth is, freelancing is not an entry-level job that you're going to find success in by learning as you go, searching for free info on the Internet and having a good attitude. I won't help you with Photoshop techniques or color theory but I can sure as heck help you run a more profitable, enjoyable freelancing business. I've been in the field for over 10 years, I know what it's like to struggle at first, and I know what you'll need to know to become successful.

Brown Calligraphy Pens

By John J. James With the advancement of technology, society's preference to type has taken over the preference to write. Email, typewriters, and word processors have taken over the more conventional form of penning thoughts to paper. However despite this trend, written communication is still regarded as the most formal type of communication. Calligraphy is an extreme form of this formality; it is the art of writing beautifully in a harmonious, expressive, and skilful manner. The use of calligraphy can be traced back to the origin of writing itself. Any style of writing depends on the success and elegance of three main factors: hand, alphabet, and script. Calligraphy involves the transformation and perfection of all these factors in a variety of colors and

tools, from inkwells and quills to pens. Modern calligraphy, like its ancient ancestor, ranges from functional hand-lettered envelopes to fine art designs. The most common use for calligraphy today is wedding invitations and personalized stationary, usually penned with gold, black, or brown calligraphy pens. The beauty of calligraphic writing attracts people for its unique beauty, and attracts customers who see it as proof of company quality. Calligraphy writing requires certain skills; therefore it cannot be performed skillfully by just anyone. It was for this reason that the calligraphy pen was introduced in the market. Typical calligraphy pens are designed in such a way that an ordinary person could more easily write calligraphy. That said, the use of these pens might require some basic skills which should be practiced over time, like fluidity and an even sense of the alphabet. For individuals tired of typed words, the art of calligraphy is very appealing, and indeed in recent years has experienced something of a renaissance. Due to the increasing popularity of calligraphy, the demand for calligraphy pens has increased. Today, calligraphy pens are available in the market of various colors, widths, and cuts. Brown calligraphy pens are more in demand then ever. Considered one of the more "personal" colors by 19th century calligraphers, brown inks have a beautiful Victorian feel. Brown calligraphy pens have rich chocolate-colored ink, and are regarded as the most attractive color due to its dark color, which strains the eye less than black ink. Brown calligraphy pens are found globally: in Middle East countries as well as some of African countries. The reason is that in these regions, brown inks are used to copy and decorate holy Islamic texts. Whether in the Middle East or the Midwest, the most popular way to shop for brown calligraphy pens is on the internet. This is mostly because of the relative scarcity of stationary stores in smaller towns. Shopping online may prove to be a bit costly when shipping fees are taken into account, but it is a time- saver as individuals don't have to hunt out individual stationary shops. Brown calligraphy pens are found in most stationery shops around the world. The cost may vary from one place to another, depending on maker and location. The cost of these brown calligraphy pens is generally higher than other type of calligraphy pens, as brown ink costs slightly more to produce than black.

Islamic Art - The Legendary Phenomenon of Rich Creativity

By Annette Labedzki Early Islamic Art originated in the seventh century from the region, now known as Syria. Islamic Art encompassed the works of all artists, irrespective of their religion, living on the lands under Muslim Empire. As a result, Islamic Art is a confluence of various art cultures. Islamic Art had architecture, calligraphy, painting, and ceramics, as its key forms. In the Early Islamic Period, from seventh to tenth century, the most prominent art form was calligraphy. This involves decorating text, including the use of ornamental motifs and embellishments to enhance the appeal of walls and curios in palaces, mosques, and homes. Islamic Calligraphy uses proverbs and

verses from the Holy Quran, and is therefore, one of the noblest art forms. It mainly employs two symbolic scripts, 'Kufic' and 'Naskh.' 'Glazed Ceramics' (eighth to eighteenth century), such as "Stonepaste Ceramics of Iraq" (ninth century) were the other splendors of the Islamic pottery. 'Lusterware Pottery,' originally from Iraq of the eighth century, and 'Enameled Glass' were a couple of more prominent eighth and ninth century pottery art forms, of which 'tin-opacified glazing' like "blue-painted opaque glaze wares of Basra" (eighth century), and 'lusterware' were the two 'revolutionary' techniques discovered. In addition, the first industrial complex for 'gilded' & 'enameled glass' production was established in eighth century only, in Syria. A feature unique to all Islamic Art forms was covering the creative medium surfaces with complex geometric, vegetal, and intricate floral patterns. The recurrence of these patterns, called 'Arabesque' probably hints at the infinite nature of Allah. Luxury artworks, such as beautiful relief-cut, stained, & mosaic glass, intricate tile work, fine ivory caskets, and metalwork peaked in the Medieval Islamic Era (from tenth to fifteenth century). Islamic Architecture is probably the most important and the most prolific form of Islamic Art. The "Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhrah)," in Jerusalem, built in the 691 CE, is perhaps the oldest Muslim building intact in its original form. The use of domes in their buildings has been an integral feature of Islamic Architecture, which was carried through to the nineteenth century western architecture. "The Great Mosque of Cordoba," in Spain and "Alhambra Palace," in Granada, exhibit 'Roman-Byzantine' influences. "The Citadel in Cairo," Egypt, "Turkish Bath Houses (Hamams)," "Caravan Inns (Caravanserai)" of Central Asia, and "Tombs" throughout the Middle East, are the key examples of Medieval Islamic Architecture. Intricate tile works and geometric tiling were the prominent architectural features of this period. The "Taj Mahal," in India, built in the seventeenth century by the Mughal Emperor Shahjahan, is the most brilliant example of the Modern Islamic Architecture. New art forms, such as jewelry making, stone carving, painting, textile weaving, and manuscript illumination, gained importance during the Later Islamic Period. Some of the finest Islamic Pile Carpets, especially 'Oriental Rugs' and 'Persian Carpets' were created during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Miniature paintings of people, strictly secular in nature, were found in the courts of "Iran" and "Mughal India." Figurative imagery is not very popular in Islamic Art, as idol worship is banned under the 'Sharia Law' of Islam. Islamic Literature includes the rich works, such as "The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights)" (tenth to fourteenth century), a compilation of tales by Persian Queen Scheherazade; "Ferdowsi's Shahnameh," an Iranian Epic based on Persian History, and "Amir Arsalan," Persian mythological story. "Layla and Majnun" (seventh century), Arabic & Persian Poetry, is the probable influence for the creation of 'Romeo & Juliet' later. Ibn Tufail's (Abubacer) "Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus)," which inspired Daniel Defoe to write 'Robinson Crusoe' and Rudyard Kipling to write 'The Jungle Book,' introduced the concept of philosophical novels to the world, while Ibn al-Nafis' "Theologus Autodidactus" is the first science fiction novel. Islamic Eschatology, the "Hadith" and the "Kitab al-Miraj," inspired Dante Alighieri's 'Divine Comedy,' Peele's 'The Battle of Alcazar,' and Shakespeare's 'The Merchant of Venice,' 'Titus Andronicus,' & 'Othello.' In addition, Islamic, Persian, and Arabic music, Puppet theatre, and passion plays called 'ta'ziya' are other splendid Islamic Art forms.


By Alison Cole Calligraphy is a unique form of art in Asian Cultures. It is among the four basic skills nee of the Chinese Literati. It is regarded as an abstract and sublime form of art in the Chinese culture and is said to be very revealing of one’s personality. Its importance goes a long way to choosing executives in the Imperial Court. Different from other visual art techniques, all calligraphy strokes are the same and unbroken, thus demanding careful planning and confident execution—very similar to the skills needed for an executive. Even though calligraphy is confined to the structure of words or characters, there can be many creative ways for self-expression. The key in good calligraphy is to control the concentration of ink, the porosity and thickness of paper, and flexibility of

the brush. There are an infinite variety of styles and forms that an artist may create. This is in contrast to western calligraphy, where diffusing ink blots and dry brushstrokes are signs of impromptu expression rather than a fault. The font-like uniformity of western calligraphy and homogeneity of characters is only a craft. The artist may seek mental exercises through calligraphy that coordinate the mind and the body to select the style in his expression and content of the words he is writing. The exercise is very disciplined yet very relaxing for a person who is concerned with his physical and spiritual well being. One of the qualities of a calligraphy artist is his longevity. Many of the famous calligraphy artists led a long and fruitful life. Other popular East Asian Calligraphy includes Japanese and Korean. Koreans and Japanese consider calligraphy as a national treasure and a heritage worth preserving. In Japan, kids compete over the best calligraphy when school begins. Famous Painters Picasso and Matisse, influenced by Orientalism, are two artists who openly declare the influence by Chinese calligraphy on their works.

Art Gallery - Buying Artwork From a Gallery

By Carl L. Wright Stereotypes Oh the abject horror of it all - going to a gallery to look perchance buy some art. Or maybe you saw a beautiful painting through the window and wanted to get a closer look. Unfortunately there was this tweedy little man/woman with over-sized horn rimmed glasses perched on a pinched face that looked you over and sniffed like they had walked into an odiferous bathroom. What a cliche. As funny as that is, and a lot of times taken for gospel, it is simply not true. Most gallery owners and their staff are wonderful people. They come in all shapes, sizes, and temperaments. Their dual purpose in life is to seduce you with the art they carry and then follow through and close the sale for cash. Just like any other retail merchant. And hopefully come back again for more.

The major difference between a hardware merchant and a gallery owner is that you know most of what is in the hardware store and how it is used and that all the brand names are about the same. All the chain saws work the same, cut wood, and cost about the same. In a gallery same-sized paintings and sculptures can be wildly different. Some of the artists have a bigger brand name than others. It seems that in a gallery the whole affair is rigged against you. Relax. All of the items mentioned above can be true - but probably are not relevant. Art is what you like, what you are comfortable with, and what you can afford. Over time your tastes will change - you will sell the art that you are dissatisfied with and buy new art. It is a delightful process not a destination set in concrete. What to look for in a Gallery First talk to friends with similar interests. Do they have a few galleries that they rave about? Visit their favorites. Check out gallery websites. Most galleries now have web sites so that you can do a quick check to see if you are interested in their offerings. Most galleries keep their web sites up-to-date, it is in their best interest to. Every gallery is also different. Certain items though are fairly standard. They have a knowledgeable staff who knows about the art and artists. The gallery should have some stock that is not on the sales floor, that the staff is willing to show you. Some inventory (maybe as much as 25%) is in storage in the back room waiting to rotate out onto the sales floor later. Most galleries accept debit cards, credit cards, personal checks and travelers checks. Many galleries also have extended payment plans for larger purchases. The Actual Visit Visiting a gallery is wonderful. You get to explore a lot of new ideas at once. You get to see the gallery owners' taste in art, how he displays it, and how he groups different art together. Lots of ideas to work with and assimilate. Some galleries only show figurative work (paintings and sculptures that are centered on people, animals, or nature). Some galleries only show abstract work (everything else). Finally there are galleries that show both in the same room. That takes quite a personality and talent to juggle disparate styles and make it look like absolutely gorgeous not jarring. Afraid of being swooped down upon by a bevy of sales assistants that cannot seem to leave you alone? Attend artists opening nights, Third Thursday events, First Friday events, etc. On these nights the galleries are usually fairly full of lookers and buyers. You will not be molested by the spikey-haired sales assistants (if this creature still exists); they are to busy. At these gallery events you can see several open galleries in one evening. Makes a great date as well as seeing a wide variety of art. A word of caution though - visit only two or three galleries in an evening. You can overload on the art and not remember what you saw where. That would be terrible! Going to galleries can be a lot of fun. Go and have some fun. You will see some great art and some so-so art. But you will come away with a better idea of what you like and why you like it. That is the first step in buying art. Enjoy!

Color Theory and Art Movements

By Murtaza Habib Color is more often than not part of a drawing, painting or a picture. There are no standard or fixed rules on how to apply color theory. Monet and Matisse are artists that used colors well. Their paintings remain to be one of the most visited pieces in art galleries and museums. Artists use color in different ways. Some use color as an alternative method in contrast to the geometric perspective system in art. Unlike lines, colors can easily evoke emotions, and it allows people to be more responsive to the picture. For some, their theory involves creating pictures without using lines and curves. Using colors alone is enough to make a picture and convey a message. Impressionists use color and light to create shapes and images. Impressionists never use black. Instead, for making shadows or darker portions of the painting, colors are mixed and contrasted to create the effect of shadows. Impressionists saw life as beautiful and joyful. Paintings were created by brush strokes and colors that delineate shapes. Painting took a long time than looking at the painting. Georges Seurat executed the color theory in another way. He did pointillism. The picture was made up of millions of dots of different colors. When one would take a close look at the painting, all one can see are colored dots but once one would take a few steps back, an image would be formed. For him, the human eyes fill in the gaps in the image. The brain mixes these colors and is 'tricked' into creating an image. Cubism shows an object in more than two perspective or different angles of the same object can be seen in one picture. Cubist artists in the analytical branch of cubism minimized their use of color and concentrated on lines and geometry. Synthetic cubism involves a more interesting execution of the colors. A lot of color was used by artists like Juan Gris, Picasso and Braque. There is an interesting mix between geometry and unusual use of colors. With synthetic cubism, it's difficult to reconstruct pictures. Van Gogh and Edvard Munch creations are all parts of the expressionist movement. Unlike impressionists, the expressionists' color theory involved shadows, shade, darkness and night. Alienation and nightmares were a common theme. Their paintings show the darker side of life and an individuals feeling of fear and loneliness. Art movements use different techniques and underlying philosophies. A movement in art that took it in a totally different level is surrealism. Everything is distorted. It is different thing that people see in real life, instead, it is most likely to know what something somebody sees in their dreams. Shapes, colors, objects are presented in a different and unusual way. Objects are placed in the picture in the most unusual way and colors do not follow the normal color scheme. Surrealist art looks illogical and impossible. Scenes are unnatural and sometimes bizarre. Theories sometimes touch on the age old debate of do lines separate colors or do colors make the lines? In these different movements, color is used in different ways and sometimes can advocate for one or the other side in the debate. Artists of today will continue to showcase and find different ways of executing color theory. To take a look at more articles just like this one, click here: Fabric Painting You will be taken to the registration page where you give your name and email address and you receive every 4 articles on canvas, oil, watercolor painting and pencil, cartoon drawing. 'Murtaza Habib' has helped hundreds of newbies to start their painting courses, now you can do it too...

Pencil Drawing - First Step to Learn Drawing Nude Males and Females

By Naval Langa Pencil drawing is a technique involving multidiscipline. It includes blending spatial, technical and aesthetic knowledge of an artist. Pencil drawing explains some important principles an artist must know. It teaches these aspects step-by-step instruction, moving from observation to simple aspects of drawing, and then to drawing difficult work like figurative painting. The pencil drawing skill is intrinsically linked with manifold aspects like sketching and recording the information to be used afterwards, in executing a watercolour paintings or an oil painting. Starting with the pencil is an ideal resource for the artist with a limited experience of the art of painting. The working with pencils and doing the pencil drawings develop the amateur artists' confidence and help their skills to reach the platform where he or she can be introduced as an artist. a little further. The intricacies of pencil drawing guides the artist through every aspect of producing a watercolour or an oil painting. While drawing light of dark lines by the tip of a pencil the artist vary the weight of the line. It is done by lofting the pencil or pressing it a little bit harder. In pencil drawing the artist exploit the use of pencil, executing it by light line or weight. In the beginning stage of drawing from the models like stills or figures, the artists need knowing about correct proportion through measurement. The pencil work helps developing understand the body form. Once the artists start loving the pencil and using it like a favoured tool, he or she would develop individual expression and visual language.

Is Islamic Calligraphy the Same As Arabic Calligraphy?

By Houriyah Abdul-Rahman Islam began in the year 610AD, when the Quran was revealed by God to the Prophet Muhammad (PBAH). This beautiful religion spread worldwide within some time. Islamic calligraphy is the core of Islamic art, and it helps to preserve the beautiful words of the Qur'an. The Arabic script is used in Islamic calligraphy today, and was developed from early Aramaic script. Calligraphy is the art of beautiful writing and it is appreciated by so many people. Since the existence of writing, calligraphy has always been practiced. Even though calligraphy technology, tools and materials developed, many of the old calligraphy technology, tools and materials are being followed and practiced today. In most countries, cultures and religions, calligraphy is considered the purest of art forms. Islam does not allow the drawing of living things, unless it's for an educational purpose, e.g. drawing of an eye that teaches people how the eye works. Many Arabic calligraphers and artists make calligraphic letters that represent living beings. This art is then not Islamic art, but instead Arabic art. This is because the calligrapher designs the Arabic letters to look like living beings (humans and/or animals). If a calligrapher intends to produce Islamic art or Islamic calligraphy, and does not draw living beings, then it is therefore Islamic art or Islamic calligraphy. But if a calligrapher does not intend to produce Islamic art or Islamic calligraphy, and draws living beings with Arabic letter forms, then this art is purely Arabic art or Arabic calligraphy.

borneo-calligraphy © 2008 Por *Templates para Você*